The dates within this resource reflect the latest scholarship and follow those put forward by the University of Memphis.
The Predynastic Period (c. 4300-3000 BC)
Naqada I (Amratian) (c. 4300-3600 BC)
Naqada II (Gerzean) (c. 3600-3150 BC)
c. 3200 BC: Hieroglyphic writing is developed.
Naqada III (Semainean) (c. 3150-3000 BC)
The Early Dynastic Period (c. 3000-2675 BC)
Dynasty 1 (c. 3000-2800 BC)
2950 BC: Upper and Lower Egypt are united by Menes, the first Pharaoh of Egypt.
c. 2900 BC: Earliest known use of papyrus as a writing surface.
Dynasty 2 (c. 2800-2675 BC)
The Old Kingdom (c. 2675-2130 BC)
Dynasty 3 (c. 2675-2625 BC)
c. 2660 BC: The Step Pyramid of Djoser is constructed at Saqqara.
Dynasty 4 (c. 2625-2500 BC)
c. 2600 BC: The Bent Pyramid is constructed for Sneferu at Dahshur.
c. 2575 BC: The Red Pyramid is constructed for Sneferu.
c. 2570 BC: The Great Pyramid of Giza is constructed for Khufu, as well as the Pyramid of Khafre.
c. 2510 BC: The Pyramid of Menkaure is constructed.
c. 2500 BC: The Great Sphinx of Giza is constructed for Khafre.
Dynasty 5 (c. 2500-2350 BC)
Dynasty 6 (c. 2350-2710 BC)
Dynasties 7-8 (c. 2170-2130 BC)
The First Intermediate Period (c. 2130-1980 BC)
Dynasties 9-10 (c. 2130-1970 BC)
Dynasty 11, Part I (c. 2081-1980 BC)
The Middle Kingdom (c. 1980-1630 BC)
Dynasty 11, Part II (c. 1980-1938 BC)
c. 1950 BC: The Temple of Karnak is constructed.
Dynasty 12 (c. 1938-1759 BC)
c. 1900 BC: The White Pyramid is constructed at Dahshur for Amenemhat II.
c. 1830 BC: The Black Pyramid is constructed for Amenemhat III.
Dynasty 13 (c. 1759 – after 1630 BC)
Dynasty 14 (dates uncertain, but contemporary with later Dynasty 13)
c. 1650 BC: The chariot is first used in Egypt during the Hyksos invasion.
The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630-1539/1523 BC)
Dynasty 15 (c. 1630-1523 BC)
Dynasty 16 (dates unknown: minor Hyksos rulers, contemporary with Dynasty 15)
Dynasty 17 (c. 1630-1539 BC)
The New Kingdom (c. 1539-1075 BC)
Dynasty 18 (c. 1539-1292 BC)
c. 1530 BC: Ahmose I (r. 1550-1525 BC) defeats the Hyksos and reunites Upper and Lower Egypt.
c. 1500 BC: Pharaohs start to be buried in the Valley of the Kings.
c. 1479 BC: Hatshepsut (r. 1479-1458 BC) becomes Pharaoh.
c. 1465 BC: The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut is constructed.
1458 BC: Thutmose III (r. 1458-1425 BC) becomes Pharaoh after the death of Hatshepsut.
c. 1400 BC: The Temple of Luxor is constructed.
c. 1388 BC: Amenhotep III (r. 1388-1351 BC) becomes Pharaoh.
c. 1351 BC: Akhenaten (r. 1351-1334 BC) becomes Pharaoh. He would later abandon traditional religion in favour of Aten.
c. 1332 BC: Tutankhamun (r. 1332-1323 BC) becomes Pharaoh.
Dynasty 19 (c. 1292-1190 BC)
1279 BC: Ramesses II (r. 1279-1213 BC) becomes Pharaoh.
1274 BC: Battle of Kadesh.
c. 1264 BC: Abu Simbel is constructed.
Dynasty 20 (c. 1190-1075 BC)
The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1075-656 BC)
Dynasty 21 (c. 1075-945 BC)
Dynasty 22 (c. 945-712 BC)
Dynasty 23 (c. 838-712 BC)
Dynasty 24 (c. 727-712 BC)
Dynasty 25 (c. 760-656 BC)
c. 671 BC: The Neo-Assyrian Empire invades Egypt.
The Late Period (c. 664-332 BC)
Dynasty 26 (c. 664-525 BC)
609 BC: The Battle of Megiddo.
525 BC: The Achaemenid Persian Empire invades Egypt.
Dynasty 27 (Achaemenid Satrapy) (c. 525-404 BC)
Dynasty 28 (c. 404-399 BC)
Dynasty 29 (c. 399-380 BC)
Dynasty 30 (c. 380-343 BC)
c. 370 BC: The Temple of Isis on Philae is constructed.
343 BC: The Achaemenid Persian Empire invades Egypt again.
Dynasty 31 (Achaemenid Satrapy) (c. 343-332 BC)
The Macedonian Period (c. 332-305 BC)
332 BC: Alexander the Great invades Egypt and founds the city of Alexandria.
323 BC: Alexander the Great dies at Babylon.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (c. 305-30 BC)
305 BC: Ptolemy I Soter founds the Ptolemaic dynasty.
c. 280 BC: The Library and Lighthouse of Alexandria are founded.
237 BC: The Temple of Edfu is constructed.
c. 180 BC: The Temple of Kom Ombo is constructed.
54 BC: The Temple of Hathor at Dendera is constructed.
30 BC: Cleopatra VII commits suicide and Egypt is annexed by the Roman Empire.