27 BC: Octavian becomes Emperor and assumes the title Augustus.
25 BC: Galatia is annexed as a Roman province.
23 BC: Marcellus dies.
19 BC: The Cantabrian Wars (29-19 BC) end with the pacification of the Cantabri and Astures.
16 BC: Raetia and Noricum are conquered and annexed as provinces.
- M. Vipsanius Agrippa dies.
- Drusus the Elder begins his German campaigns across the Rhine (12-9 BC).
- Drusus the Elder dies after falling off his horse whilst on campaign in Germania.
- Pannonia is also annexed and incorporated into the province of Illyricum.
2 BC: Julia, the daughter of Augustus, is convicted of adultery and treason and is exiled.
2 AD: Lucius Caesar dies of a sudden illness in Massilia.
4 AD: Gaius Caesar dies of his battle wounds in Lycia.
- The Great Illyrian Revolt (6-9 AD) starts.
- The province of Judaea is created after Augustus deposes Herod Archelaus.
9 AD: The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
10 AD: The province of Illyricum is divided into the provinces Pannonia and Dalmatia.
- Augustus dies on 19th August and is succeeded by Tiberius.
- Germanicus is appointed commander of the Roman Army in Germania to quell a mutiny and begins his campaign to recapture the lost eagles.
17 AD: Tiberius annexes Cappadocia, organising it into a province, and Commagene after the death of his cleint kings.
19 AD: Germanicus dies in Antioch, possibly being poisoned on Tiberius’ orders.
23 AD: Drusus Julius Caesar, son of Tiberius, dies.
26 AD: Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving Sejanus in charge of Rome.
29 AD: Livia Drusilla, wife of Augustus and mother of Tiberius, dies.
31 AD: Sejanus is executed on Tiberius’ orders.
37 AD: Tiberius dies on Capri. He is succeeded by Caligula and Tiberius Gemellus.
38 AD: Tiberius Gemellus is killed on the orders of Caligula.
41 AD: Caligula is assissinated by members of his Praetorian Guard, who then acclaim Claudius emperor.
42 AD: Mauretania is organised into the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.
- The Roman Invasion of Britain begins.
- Claudius annexes Lycia as a province.
46 AD: Odrysia is annexed and becomes the province of Thrace, after its client king is killed.
48 AD: Claudius executes his third wife, Valeria Messalina, for treason.
49 AD: Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger.
50 AD: Claudius adopts Nero as his son.
54 AD: Clauius dies and is succeeded by Nero.
55 AD: Claudius’ son Britannicus is poisoned on the orders of Nero.
58 AD: The Roman-Parthian War (58-63 AD) begins over the new ruler of Armenia.
59 AD: Agrippina the Younger is killed on the orders of Nero.
60 AD: Boudica’s Revolt (60-61 AD) begins.
64 AD: The Great Fire of Rome.
65 AD: The Pisonian Conspiracy is uncovered.
66 AD: The First Jewish War (66-73 AD) begins.
- Nero commits suicide after being declared an enemy of the state.
- Galba is acclaimed Emperor by the Senate.
69 AD: The Year of the Four Emperors
- 15 January: Galba is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard and replaced by Otho.
- 16 April: Otho commits suiced after being defeated by Vitellius, who becomes Emperor.
- Revolt of the Batavi begins.
- December: the Senate recognises Vespasian as Emperor.
- 22 December: Vitellius is executed by soldiers loyal to Vespasian.
70 AD: Siege of Jerusalem – Titus breaches the walls, sacks the city and destroys the Second Temple.
73 AD: The Siege of Masada.
77 AD: Cn. Julius Agricola is appointed Governor of Britannia.
- Vespasian dies and is succeeded by Titus.
- Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.
80 AD: The Colosseum is completed.
81 AD: Titus dies of a fever and is succeeded by his brother Domitian.
85 AD: Agricola is recalled to Rome.
86 AD: Domitian’s Dacian War (86-88 AD) begins.
89 AD: The Revolt of Saturninus.
96 AD: Domitian is assissinated in a palace plot and is succeeded by Nerva on the wishes of the Senate.
98 AD: Nerva dies and is succeeded by his adopted son Trajan.
101 AD: 1st Dacian War (101-2 AD) begins.
105 AD: 2nd Dacian War (105-6 AD) begins.
106 AD: Nabataea is annexed by Trajan and organised into the province of Arabia Petraea.
107 AD: Dacia is organised into a province.
113 AD: Trajan’s Parthian campaign (113-117 AD) begins.
115 AD: The Kitos War (115-117 AD) begins.
117 AD: Trajan dies and is succeeded by Hadrian.
118 AD: Hadrian withdraws from Armenia, Assyria and Mesopotamia.
122 AD: Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins.
132 AD: The Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-136 AD) begins.
138 AD: Hadrian dies and is succeeded by Antoninus Pius, who he adopted earlier in the year.
142 AD: The construction of the Antoninie Wall begins.
- Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.
- The Roman-Parthian War (161-166 AD) begins.
165 AD: The Antonine Plague (165-180 AD) is brought back from the East.
166 AD: The Marcomannic Wars (166-180 AD) begin.
169 AD: Lucius Verus dies, leaving Marcus Aurelius as sole ruler.
180 AD: Marcus Aurelius dies and is succeeded by his son Commodus.
184 AD: The Antonine Wall is abandoned.
192 AD: Commodus is assassinated in a place plot.
193 AD: Year of the Five Emperors
- 1 January: Pertinax is acclaimed Emperor by the Praetorian Guard.
- 28 March: Pertinax is murdered by the Praetorian Guard, who sell the imperial purple to Didius Julianus.
- 9 April: Pescennius Niger is acclaimed Emperor by the legions in the East.
- 14 April: Septimius Severus is acclaimed Emperor in Pannonia.
- May: the Senate recognise Severus as emperor and sentence Julianus to death.
194 AD: Septimius Severus defeats Pescennius Niger at the Battle of Isus.
196 AD: Clodius Albinus is acclaimed Emperor in Britannia.
- Septimius Severus defeats Clodius Albinus at the Battle of Lugdunum.
- Severus’ Parthian campaign (197-8 AD) begins.
208 AD: The Roman Invasion of Caledonia (208-210) begins.
211 AD: Septimius Severus dies at York and is succeeded by his two sons Caracalla and Geta. Geta is murdered later in the year on the orders of Caracalla.
212 AD: Caracalla gives Roman citizenship to all free men of the Empire.
217 AD: Caracalla is assassinated whilst on campaign in the East. He is succeeded by his Praetorian Prefect Macrinus.
218 AD: Macrinus is captured and executed by the legions loyal to Elagabalus, who succeeds him.
222 AD: Elagabalus is assassinated and succeeded by his cousin Alexander Severus.
230 AD: The Roman-Persian Wars begin.
The Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 AD):
235 AD: Alexander Severus is murdered in a mutiny at Mainz and is succeeded by Maximinus Thrax.
238 AD: Year of the Six Emperors
- 22 March: Gordian I and Gordian II are acclaimed Joint-Emperors in Africa, which is later ratified by the Senate.
- April: They are killed in the Battle of Carthage by Maximinus’ forces.
- 22 Aprill: Pupienus and Balbinus are elected Joint-Emperors by the Senate. Gordian III is elected Caesar.
- May: Maximinus is murdered in a mutiny at Aquileia.
- 29 July, Pupienus and Balbinus are murdered by the Praetorian Guard and are succeeded by Gordian III.
244 AD: Gordian III is killed at the Battle of Misiche and is succeeded by his Praetorian Prefect, Philip the Arab.
249 AD: Philip the Arab is killed in battle by the forces of Decius, who becomes Emperor.
- Decius is killed at the Battle of Abritus by the Goths.
- Trebonianus Gallus is acclaimed Emperor by the Danube legions, while Hostillian, Decius’ son, is appointed by the Senate.
- Hostillian is adopted by Trebonianus but later dies of the Plague of Cyprian.
- Trebonianus Gallus is murdered in a mutiny at Terni. The army then acclaims Aemilianus as Emperor.
- Aemilianus is killed by his own soldiers as Valerian’s army approaches, who is then appointed Emperor.
256 AD: The Sassanid Persians conquer Antioch.
- Valerian is taken captive by the Persians during peace negotiations. His son and co-emperor Gallienus becomes sole ruler.
- The Gallic Empire breaks from Rome under Postumus.
264 AD: Valerian dies in captivity.
267 AD: The Palmyrene Empire splits from Rome under Zenobia.
268 AD: Gallienus is killed by his own soldiers, who acclaim Claudius II as Emperor.
- Postumus is murdered by his own soldiers and succeeded by Marius and then Victorinus.
- Zenobia conquers Egypt.
- Roman forces defeat the Goths at the Battle of Naissus.
- Claudius II dies and is succeeded by his brother Quintillus.
- Quintillus dies at Aquileia.
- Aurelian becomes Emperor.
271 AD: Victorinus is murdered and is succeeded by Tetricus.
272 AD: Zenobia is apprehended escaping to the Sassanids.
273 AD: Palmyra rebels and is destroyed.
274 AD: Aurelian defeats Tetricus at the Battle of Chalons.
275 AD: Aurelian is murdered by the Praetorian Guard and Tacitus is chisen to succeed him by the Senate.
- Tacitus dies.
- Probus is acclaimed Emperor by his forces in the East, Florianus is acclaimed by his forces in the West.
- Florianus is murdered by his own troops near Tarsus after being defeated by Probus.
282 AD: Probus is assassinated after Carus is elected Emperor by the Praetorian Guard. Carus names his sons, Carinus and Numerian, as Caesars.
283 AD: Carus dies.
284 AD: Numerian dies and Diocletian is acclaimed Emperor by the forces in the East.
285 AD: Carinus is defeated by Diocletian at the Battle of the Margus.
- Carausius declares himself Emperor in Britain and Northern Gaul.
- Diocletian proclaims Maximian augustus of the West, ruling himself as augustus of the East.
- Diocletian establishes the Tetrarchy, appointing Constantius Chlorus caesar of the West and Galerius as caesar of the East.
- Constantius Chlorus conquers Carausius’ Gallic territories.
- Carausius is murdered by Allectus, who succeeeds him.
301 AD: Diocletian issues the Edict on Maximum Prices, reforming the currency and setting price ceilings on a number of goods.
303 AD: Diocletian issued his first edict against Christians, calling for the destruction of Christian holy books and places of worship and stripping Christians of their government positions and political rights.
305 AD: Diocletian and Maximian abdicated. Constantius and Galerius were elevated to augusti. Galerius appointed Flavius Valerius Severus caesar in the West and Maximinus II caesar in the East.
306 AD: Constantius Chlorus dies at York and his son Constantine is acclaimed Emperor by his troops.
311 AD: Diocletian dies.
312 AD: Constantine defeats Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.
330 AD: Constantine moves his capital to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople.
337 AD: Constantine dies.
- Rome is sacked by the Visigoths under Alaric I.
- Roman rule in Britain ends.
455 AD: Rome is sacked by the Vandals.
476 AD: Odoacer deposes Romulus Augustulus, the last Roman Emperor, and declares himself King of Italy.