753 BC: Founding of Rome.
650 BC: The Etruscan kings begin to rule Rome.
509 BC: Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome, is driven out and the Roman Republic is formed, with officials now being elected.
496 BC: Battle of Lake Regulus – the Romans defeat the Latins and force the Latins to sign a treaty.
450 BC: The Twelve Tables, the first written laws of the Roman Republic, are published.
440 BC: The Lex Cannuleia is passed. This established equality in law between the patricians and plebeians.
425 BC: Conquest of Fidenae, a vassal city of Veii.
396 BC: Conquest of Veii after a prolonged siege.
390 BC: Sack of Rome by the Gauls.
378 BC: The Servian Walls are built around Rome to stop it being sacked again.
343-1 BC: The 1st Samnite War – Rome defeats the Samnites.
338 BC: Rome defeats the Latin League and dissolves the confederation.
326-304 BC: The 2nd Samnite War.
321 BC: Battle of the Caudine Forks – the Romans suffer a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Samnites.
312 BC: The Via Appia and Aqua Appia are built.
298-90 BC: The 3rd Samnite War.
295 BC: Battle of Sentinum – Rome defeats the Samnites and avenge the humiliation of the Caudine Forks.
287 BC: The Lex Hortensia, a yes or no vote of the people, is passed.
283 BC: The province of Cisalpine Gaul is created.
280-75 BC: The Pyrrhic War – Rome defeats Pyrrhus of Epirus after a costly war.
272 BC: Tarentum surrenders to Rome and the rest of Magna Graecia submit to Roman rule.
264-41 BC: The 1st Punic War.
260 BC: The Roman navy is created to fight the seaborne power of Carthage.
259 BC: Battle of Mylae – the Roman navy defeats the Cathaginians.
256-5 BC: Regulus invades Africa but is defeated.
249 BC: Battle of Drapana – Carthage defeats Rome.
241 BC: Battle of the Aegates Islands – the Roman navy defeats the Carthaginians and Rome takes Sicily and makes it a province.
238 BC: Corsica and Sardinia are annexed.
218-201 BC: The 2nd Punic War.
218 BC: Hannibal invades Italy after corssing the Alps.
218 BC: Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal defeats the Romans.
217 BC: Battle of Lake Trasimene – Hannibal defeats the Romans.
216 BC: Battle of Cannae – Hannibal annihilates an entire Roman army.
216 BC: Carthage makes an alliance with Philip V of Macedonia to join the war and some of Rome’s allies defect to Hannibal.
214 BC: Siege of Syracuse – Rome is defeated with the help of Archimedes’ siege engines.
214-205 BC: 1st Macedonian War – Rome fights on two fronts.
211-206 BC: Scipio campaigns in Spain and captures Cartagena.
203 BC: Scipio invades Africa and defeats the Carthaginians at the Battle of the Great Plains.
202 BC: Battle of Zama – Hannibal is decisively defeated and the war ends.
200-196 BC: The 2nd Macedonian War – Philip V is defeated and forced to abandon Greece.
195 BC: The Laconian War.
192-188 BC: The Seleucid War – Rome defeats Antiochus III and gained control of Greece and Asia Minor.
181-179 BC: The 1st Celt-Iberian War.
179 BC: The Pons Aemilia is built over the Tiber.
172-168 BC: The 3rd Macedonian War.
154-151 BC: The 2nd Celt-Iberian War.
149-146 BC: The 3rd Punic War – Carthage is besieged, captured, sacked and destroyed.
146 BC: Achaea and Macedonia become Roman provinces.
135-132 BC: The 1st Servile War.
112-106 BC: The Jugurthine War
107 BC: The Marian Reforms – C. Marius institutes long-reaching reforms in the Roman army and makes it a professional army.
105-101 BC: The Cimbrian War
105 BC: Battle of Arausio – a Roman army is defeated by the Cimbri and Teutones.
102 BC: Battle of Aquae Sextae – Marius defeats the Teutones.
101 BC: Battle of Vercellae – Marius defeats the Cimbri.
104-100 BC: The 2nd Servile War.
91-87 BC: The Social War – Rome defeated its Italian allies and granted them Roman citizenship.
88-85 BC: The 1st Mithridatic War.
88 BC: Mithradates invades Roman Asia, carries out the Asiatic Vespers and establishes a presence in Greece.
86 BC: Sulla captures and sacks Athens.
86 BC: Battle of Chaeronea.
85 BC: Mithridates met with Sulla at Dardanus later in 85 BC, and accepted terms which restored all his gains in Asia, Cappadocia and Bithynia to their original rulers, but left him his own kingdom.
88-81 BC: The Marian-Sullan Civil Wars.
83-81 BC: The 2nd Mithridatic War.
81 BC: Sulla becomes Dictator.
80-72 BC: The Sertorian War.
75-63 BC: The 3rd Mithridatic War.
73-71 BC: The 3rd Servile War.
67 BC: Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates.
60 BC: The 1st Triumvirate is formed.
59 BC: Julius Caesar becomes Consul.
58-50 BC: The Gallic Wars
58 BC: Battle of the Arar – Caesar defeats the Helvetii.
58 BC: Battle of Bibracte – Caesar defeats the Helvetii.
58 BC: Battle of Vosges – Caesar defeats Ariovistus.
57 BC: Battle of the Sabis – Caesar defeats the Nervii.
57 BC: Battle of the Axona – Caesar defeats the Belgae.
55-54 BC: Caesar’s two invasions of Britain.
52 BC: Battle of Gergovia – Vercingetorix defeats Caesar.
52 BC: Battle of Alesia – Caesar defeats Vercingetorix.
53 BC: Battle of Carrhae – the Parthians heavily defeat Crassus and he is killed in the aftermath of the battle.
49 BC: Caesar crosses the Rubicon and plunges the Roman Republic into civil war.
49-45 BC: Caesar’s Civil War
48 BC: Battle of Dyrrachium – Caesar is defeated by Pompey.
48 BC: Battle of Pharsalus – Caesar defeats Pompey. He then flees to Egypt and is beheaded on the orders of Ptolemy XIII.
47 BC: Siege of Alexandria – Caesar supports Cleopatra’s claim to the throne of Egypt.
47 BC: Battle of Zela – Caesar defeats Pharnaces II, son of Mithridates VI, of Pontus.
46 BC: Battle of Thapsus – Caesar defeats Cato the Younger and Scipio, ending in their suicides.
45 BC: Battle of Munda – Caesar defeats Titus Labienus and Cn. Pompey.
44 BC: Julius Caesar is assassinated.
43 BC: The 2nd Triumvirate is formed.
42 BC: Battle of Philippi – Octavian and Mark Antony defeat Brutus and Cassius.
36 BC: Battle of Naulochus – Octavian defeats Sextus Pompey.
31 BC: Battle of Actium – Octavian defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra and becomes the sole ruler of Rome.
27 BC: Octavian is given the new titles of Augustus and Princeps by the Senate. This marks the start of the Principate.