Thoth was the Egyptian god of of wisdom, writing, hieroglyphs, science, magic, art, judgment and the dead.

Symbols: Ibis, papyrus scroll, baboon, reed pens, stylus, writing palette, scales
Cult Centre: Hermopolis
Consort: Ma’at
Children: Seshat
Greek equivalent: Hermes
Roman equivalent: Mercury

Weighing of the Heart ceremony from the Papyrus of Hunefer, c. 1275 BC.

He was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him.


Thoth had many roles in Egyptian mythology. He served as scribe of the gods, credited with the invention of writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs. However in the Underworld, he was the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased’s heart against the feather, representing the principle of Maat, was exactly even. He was the master of both physical and moral law, making proper use of Ma’at. He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth and everything in them.

A relief carving of Thoth from the throne back of a seated statue of Rameses II, Luxor. (c) Jon Bodsworth

The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic. The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing and oratory. They even claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.

Back to Main Egyptian Gods