The Late Roman Army

The scholarship available on the Late Roman Army.


  • Casey, J., The Legions in the Later Roman Empire, Cardiff, 1991.
  • Nicasie, M.J., Twilight of Empire. The Roman Army from the Reign of Diocletian until the Battle of Adrianople, Dutch Monographs in Ancient History and Archaeology 19, Amsterdam, 1998.
  • Southern, P. & Dixon, K.R., The Late Roman Army, London, 1996.

Further Reading

  • Bishop & Coulston 2006,
  • Coulston, J.C.N., ‘Arms and armour of the Late Roman army’, in D. Nicolle (ed.), Companion to Medieval Arms and Armour, Woodbridge, 2002, 3-24.
  • Cowan, R., Roman Legionary AD 284-337, Oxford, 2015.
  • Crump, G.A., ‘Ammianus and the Late Roman army’, Historia 22, 1973, 91-103.
  • Elton, H., Warfare in Roman Europe, AD 350-425, Oxford, 1996.
  • Gardner 2007.
  • Goodburn, R. & Bartholemew, P. (ed.), Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum, BAR Suppl. Ser. 15, Oxford, 1976.
  • James, S., ‘The fabricae: state arms factories of the Later Roman Empire’, in J.C.N. Coulston (ed.), Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers. Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference, BAR Int. Ser. 394, Oxford, 1988, 257-331.
  • Johnson, S. 1983:  Late Roman Fortifications, London, 1983.
  • Jones, A.H.M., The Later Roman Empire, 284-602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey, Oxford, 1964, ch.17.
  • Lee, A.D., War in Late Antiquity: a Social History, Oxford, 2007.
  • Lewin, A.S. and Pellegrini, P. (ed.), The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest, BAR Int. Ser. 1717, Oxford, 2007.
  • Maas, M., Readings in Late Antiquity. A Sourcebook, London, 2000, ch. 2.
  • Tomlin, R.S.O., ‘The army of the late empire’, in Wacher 1987.
  • Treadgold, W., Byzantium and its Army, 284-1081, Stanford, 1995.
  • Tomlin, R.S.O., ‘The legions of the Late Empire’, in Brewer 2000, 159-81.
  • Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire. A Social and Economic Study, Baltimore, 1994.