She was the goddess of the earth. She was one of the primordial gods born at the dawn of creation.

Residence: Earth
Fruit and grain
Parents: Chaos
Siblings: Erebus, Nyx, Tartarus
Offspring: UranusPontus, the Ourea, HecatoncheiresCyclops, the Titans, the Giants, Nereus, Thaumus, Phorcys, Ceto, Eurybia, Aergia, Typhon and Python
Roman equivalent:
Terra, Tellus

Gaia on a panel from the Ara Pacis. (c) Chris Nas

Gaia was the great mother of all creation; the heavenly gods were descended from her through her union with Uranus (Sky), the sea-gods from her union with Pontus (Sea), the Giants from her mating with Tartarus (the Pit), and mortal creatures born directly from her earthy flesh.

Gaia was the chief antagonist of the heavenly gods. First she rebelled against her husband Uranus, who had imprisoned several of her giant-sons within her womb. Later when her son Cronus defied her by imprisoning these same sons, she sided with Zeus in his rebellion. Finally she came into conflict with Zeus for she was angered by his binding of her Titan offspring in Tartarus. She birthed a tribe of Giants and later the monster Typhon to overthrow him, but both failed in their attempts.

Roman mosaic of Aeon and Gaia with child-like representations of the seasons, 3rd c. BC, from Sentinum. Munich Glyptotek.
Detail of an Attic red-figure krater depicting Gaia and Erichthonius. Virginia Museum of Fine Art. (c)

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